Doctors often say that diabetes is not a disease but a lifestyle. And this is true, because the disease is chronic, incurable, which still requires adherence to a special diet. Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic disorders due to poor absorption of glucose. Type II diabetes often develops on the background of obesity. In mild form this type of diabetes diet is the main treatment.
The concept of “bread unit”
Type one diabetes requires adherence to a diet as adjuvant therapy for the treatment of the main is daily administration of insulin. When type two diabetes proper nutrition plays a crucial role, along with antidiabetic drugs.
Key in the diet for diabetics is to monitor the consumption of carbohydrates.
To make things easier for patients, nutritionists have introduced a notional concept for diabetes – bread unit. It is a kind of measure for the calculation of carbohydrates. One bread unit contains 12-15 grams of carbohydrates, which are absorbed by the body, and increases the level of blood sugar 2.8 mmol/l To digest that amount of carbs, the body spends 2 units of insulin. 1 bread unit, for example, corresponds to 20-25 grams of bread, half a Cup of buckwheat or oat cereal, 1 medium Apple, 2 prunes. A day a diabetic patient needs to 18-25 bread units of carbohydrates that it is better to divide into 5-6 meals. However, note that most of the carbohydrate foods, are best consumed in the morning.
Excessive consumption of carbohydrates can lead to high blood sugar levels. Does not eating carbs is also impossible, otherwise there is another problem – reducing the level of blood sugar. Therefore, to be guided by bread units during the compilation of the daily diet is quite convenient and useful for diabetic patient.
The peculiarities of nutrition in diabetes
Meals diabetics doctors often called a diet (a table) No. 9. It should meet the following principles:
- The amount of energy used in food must equal the energy needs of the patient. If the patient moves little, he needs to eat less, and Vice versa.
- Food should be balanced and should eat proteins and fats, and carbohydrates, but the latter need special control.
- It is necessary to eat 5-6 times a day in small portions.
Often people with diabetes have symptoms of obesity. Not to eat too much, they need to include in your diet vegetables that enhance the feeling of satiety: sauerkraut, spinach, green peas, tomatoes, cucumbers.
Patients with diabetes are allowed to eat:
- 200-350 grams of bread a day, preferably rye;
- vegetable soups;
- beef, veal, lean pork, Turkey, rabbit, boiled or steamed;
- of lean fish (perch, cod, pike), boiled or steamed;
- raw, boiled or baked vegetables: cabbage, lettuce, radishes, cucumbers, tomatoes, zucchini, potatoes, beets, carrots;
- cereals, legumes, pasta (rarely, instead of bread, it is better from durum wheat);
- omelet with no more than 2 eggs a day;
- sour and sour-sweet varieties of berries and fruits: apples, lemons, oranges, red currants, cranberries;
- dairy products in limited quantities, milk – after doctor’s permission;
- tea with milk, weak coffee, tomato juice, fruit juices in limited quantities;
- butter and vegetable oil in limited quantities.
- candy, chocolate, confectionery, pastries;
- jam, honey;
- ice cream;
- spicy, smoked, sour, salty meals;
- fried foods;
- pepper, mustard;
- grapes, bananas, raisins;
- sugar (rarely allowed in small amounts with a doctor’s permission).
Nutrition in diabetes mellitus may be varied, and the food delicious. Just need to adapt to new conditions, to eat often, but small portions. It should be understood that diet for a diabetic is as important as medication. Therefore, the existence of the disease need to accept and learn to live with it.